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A cough is a reflex action to clear your airways of mucus and irritants such as dust or smoke.

Coughs may be dry or chesty (see below) and most coughs clear up within three weeks.


Treatment isn't usually necessary, but a home remedy containing honey and lemon may help ease a short-term cough.

There's little evidence to suggest that cough medicines will be any more effective.


Read more about cough treatments.

Dry or Chesty Cough?

Dry coughs are usually felt in the throat as a tickle that sets off the coughing.

It happens when the throat and upper airways become inflamed (swollen). No phlegm (thick mucus) is produced.

The common cold or flu causes a dry cough because your brain thinks the inflammation in your throat and upper airways is a foreign object and tries to remove it by coughing.

A chesty cough usually produces phlegm. The cough is helpful, because it clears the phlegm from your lung passages.

When to see your GP

See your GP if you've had a cough for more than three weeks after a viral infection, or if your cough is progressively getting worse.

If you experience breathing difficultieschest pain or you cough up blood, speak to your GP immediately.

If your GP is unsure what's causing your cough they may refer you to a respiratory specialist.


They may also request some tests, including:

  • a chest X-ray - to see if you have a chest infection
  • taking a sample of your phlegm for analysis - to help decide if antibiotics should be prescribed
  • spirometry (breathing in and out of a tube connected to a machine) - to see if you have an underlying respiratory condition
  • allergy testing - to see whether your cough is caused by something you're allergic to, such as house dust mites

What Causes a Cough?

Most people with a cough have a respiratory tract infection caused by a virus. Possible non-infectious causes include:

In rare cases it may be the first sign of a condition causing a long-term cough.


Read more about the causes of a cough.


A cold is a mild viral infection of the nose, throat, sinuses and upper airways. It can cause a blocked nose followed by a runny nose, sneezing, a sore throat and a cough.

In adults and older children, the cold will usually last for about a week as the body fights off the infection. Colds in younger children can last up to two weeks.

There is no cure for a cold, although you can usually relieve the symptoms of a cold at home by taking over-the-counter medication, such as paracetamol, and drinking plenty of fluids.


Read more information about treating colds.

When to see a GP

You only really need to see your GP if:

  • your symptoms persist for more than three weeks 
  • you have a high temperature (fever) of 39°C (102.2°F) or above
  • you cough up blood-stained phlegm (thick mucus)
  • you feel chest pain
  • you have breathing difficulties
  • you experience severe swelling of your lymph nodes (glands) in your neck and/or armpits

See your GP if you're concerned about your baby, an elderly person, or if you have a long-term illness, such as a chest condition. You can also phone NHS 111 for an assessment.

Tests may be needed to rule out a more serious infection such as pneumonia (a bacterial infection of the lungs) orglandular fever (a viral infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus).

What Causes a Cold?

Colds are caused by viruses which attack the lining of the nose and throat, inflaming these areas. As they become inflamed, they begin to produce more mucus, resulting in a runny nose and sneezing.

More than 200 types of virus can cause a cold. Those most responsible for colds belong to one of two groups, rhinoviruses and coronaviruses. Because a number of viruses can cause a cold, it's possible to have several colds, one after the other, as each one is caused by a different virus.

How does a Cold Spread? 

A cold can be spread through:

  • direct contact – if you sneeze or cough, tiny droplets of fluid containing the cold virus are launched into the air and can be breathed in by others
  • indirect contact – if you sneeze onto a door handle and someone else touches the handle a few minutes later, they may catch the cold virus if they then touch their mouth or nose 

In general, a person first becomes contagious two to three days before their symptoms begin, and they remain contagious until all their symptoms have gone. So most people will be contagious for around two weeks.

How can I Prevent a Cold Spreading?

You can take steps to help prevent the spread of a cold. For example:

  • wash your hands regularly and properly, particularly after touching your nose or mouth and before handling food 
  • always sneeze and cough into tissues as this will help to prevent the virus-containing droplets from your nose and mouth entering the air where they can infect others; throw away used tissues immediately and wash your hands 
  • clean surfaces regularly to keep them free of germs 
  • use your own cup, plates, cutlery and kitchen utensils
  • use disposable paper towels to dry your hands and face, rather than shared towels. As with tissues, always dispose of the paper towels after you have finished using them

Read more information about preventing colds and flu.


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